The identification and intervention process for dyslexia can be multifaceted. These processes involve both state and federal requirements that must be followed. Generally in Texas, however, dyslexia identification and intervention most often happen through general education rather than special education. Special education and the assessment through IDEA 2004 may occur when dyslexia is associated with factors complicating dyslexia, thus requiring more support than what is available through the general education dyslexia program.
Prior to Assessment and Identification
In Texas and throughout the country, there is a focus on a Response to Intervention (RtI) or tiered intervention process as a vehicle for meeting the academic and behavioral needs of all students. The components of the Student Success Initiative (SSI) and other state-level programs offer additional support. Current federal legislation under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) calls for the use of benchmark assessments for early identification of struggling students before they fail. In fact,
state law requires the use of early reading assessments that are built on substantial evidence of best practices. In Clear Creek ISD, this process is referred to as the Student Success Team (SST) process.
Carefully chosen, these assessments can give crucial information about a student’s learning and can provide a basis for the tiered intervention model. Through the tiered intervention process, schools can document students’ learning difficulties, provide ongoing assessment, and monitor reading achievement progress for students at risk for dyslexia or other reading difficulties.
While not required prior to the assessment and identification of dyslexia, RtI is considered best practice.
Assessment ProceduresIf a decision is made to evaluate a student for dyslexia, consent will be obtained from the parent or guardian via Section 504 or IDEA procedures. Clear Creek ISD uses previously collected as well as current information to evaluate the student’s academic progress and determine what actions are needed to ensure the student’s improved academic performance.
The academic history of each student will provide the school with the cumulative data needed to ensure that underachievement in a student suspected of having dyslexia is not due to lack of appropriate instruction in reading. This information should include data that demonstrates that the student was provided appropriate instruction and include data-based documentation of repeated assessments of achievement at reasonable intervals (progress monitoring), reflecting formal assessment of student progress during instruction. This cumulative data also includes information from parents/guardians.
Sources and examples of cumulative data include, but are not limited to:
- Vision and hearing screening
- Teacher input
- SST data
- Report cards
- G/T assessments (if applicable)
- Samples of classwork
- K - 2 reading assessment (BAS)
- K - 2 math assessment (DNC)
- State assessment results
- Full Individual Evaluations (if applicable)
- Outside assessments (if applicable)
- Speech and Language assessments (if applicable)
- Attendance records
- Curriculum Based Assessments (CBAs)
- Second Language Learner information such as
- Home Language Surveys
- English Proficiency data
- Language of instruction and intervention information
After data gathering, the next step in the evaluation process is formal assessment. This is not a screening; rather, it is an individualized assessment used to gather evaluation data. Formal assessment includes both formal and informal data. All data will be used to determine whether the student demonstrates a pattern of evidence for dyslexia. Professionals conducting assessment for the identification of dyslexia will need to look beyond scores on standardized assessments alone and examine the student’s classroom reading performance, educational history, and early language experiences to assist with determining reading and spelling abilities and difficulties.
Domains assessed include:
- Academic achievement
- Letter knowledge
- Reading words in isolation
- Decoding nonsense words
- Reading fluency (both rate and accuracy)
- Reading comprehension
- Cognitive areas associated with dyslexia
- Phonological/Phonemic Awareness
- Rapid Naming
- Other optional areas
- Listening comprehension
- Orthographic processing
- Phonological memory
Identification of Dyslexia
The identification of dyslexia is made by a §504 committee or, in the case of a special education referral, the admission, review, and dismissal (ARD) committee. In order to make an informed determination, either committee must include members who are knowledgeable about the student being assessed, assessments used, and meaning of the collected data. Additionally, the committee members should have knowledge regarding the reading process; dyslexia and related disorders; dyslexia instruction; and district or charter school, state, and federal guidelines for assessment.
In Clear Creek ISD, assessment results are first reviewed by a Dyslexia Assessment Committee (DAC) and recommendations regarding eligibility are made to the §504 or ARD committee. The DAC members look beyond scores on standardized assessments alone and examine the student’s classroom reading performance, educational history, and early language experiences to assist with determining reading and spelling abilities and difficulties. To be identified with dyslexia, there must be a preponderance of data supporting:
- A pattern of low reading and spelling skills and
- An underlying cognitive deficit in either
- phonological/phonemic awareness (or history of such deficit)
- rapid symbolic naming
- orthographic processing
- That is unexpected for the student in relation to the student’s other cognitive abilities and provision of effective classroom instruction.
Re-evaluations for Dyslexia
According to the International Dyslexia Association, “Dyslexia is a lifelong condition. However, with proper help, many people with dyslexia can learn to read and write well. Early identification and treatment is the key to helping individuals with dyslexia achieve in school and in life."
TEA does not require students with dyslexia to undergo re-evaluation. However, Clear Creek ISD believes it is best practice in order to determine effectiveness of services, additional areas of need and provide current evaluation results for college entrance exams or college services. In accordance to TEC §38.003 (b-1), results of previous assessments will be included in the re-evaluation.
Parents or adult students will be notified in writing prior to the re-evaluation and may contact the dyslexia teacher if he or she does not want the re-evaluation to be conducted.
Parent Request for Assessment and IdentificationParents/guardians always have the right to request a referral for a dyslexia assessment at any time. Once a parent request for dyslexia assessment has been made, the school district is obligated to review the student’s data history (both formal and informal data) to determine whether there is reason to believe the student has a disability. If a disability is suspected, the student needs to be evaluated following the guidelines outlined in this chapter. If the school does not suspect a disability and determines that evaluation would not be warranted, the parents/guardians must be given a copy of their due process rights. While §504 is silent on prior written notice, best practice is to provide a parent the reasons an evaluation is denied.
Privately Obtained AssessmentsA parent/guardian may choose to have his/her child assessed by a private diagnostician or other source. To be valid, this assessment must comply with the requirements set forth in §504 and the guidelines in the Dyslexia Handbook. The evaluation provided is part of the evaluation data but does not, independently, create eligibility.
Outside assessment will be reviewed by the SST (including the dyslexia teacher) and a decision whether to refer for a dyslexia assessment under Section 504 or IDEA will be made. If the SST does not refer for assessment, the parents/guardians must be given a copy of their due process rights. While §504 is silent on prior written notice, best practice is to provide a parent the reasons an evaluation is denied. If assessment is recommended, consent for an evaluation will be obtained from the parent/guardian. If necessary, additional formal assessment will be conducted and all data reviewed by the DAC team.
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